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A Resource On Frithjof Schuon's Life & Teachings

People who were associated with Frithjof Schuon,
as well as contributors to this site

 al-‘Alawi, Shaykh Ahmad  Gall, Father  Moore, Jr., Alvin  Red Cloud, James
 Biès, Jean  Gervy, Jeanne-Marie  Murray, John  Saran, Awadh Kishore
 Black Elk, (Nicholas)  Goble, Paul  Nasr, Seyyed Hossein  Schaya, Leo
 Brown, Joseph Epes  Guénon, René  Northbourne, Lord  Schimmel, Annemarie
 Burckhardt, Titus  Hani, Jean  Oldmeadow, Harry  Schuon, Catherine
 Casey, Deborah  Jagadguru of Kanchi, 68th  Pallis, Marco  Scott, Timothy
 Casey, Jennifer  Jenny, Johann Jakob  Perry, Mark  Shah-Kazemi, Reza
 Coomaraswamy, Rama P.  Keeble, Brian  Perry, Whitall  Smith, Huston
 Coomaraswamy, Ananda K.  Küry, Hans  Perry, Barbara  Soares de Azevedo, Mateus
 Critchlow, Keith  Lafouge, Jean-Pierre  Petitpierre, Jean-Claude  Stoddart, William
 Cutsinger, James  Lakhani, M. Ali  Pollack, Michael  Sugobono, Nahuel
 editors at frithjof-schuon.com, (various)  Laude, Patrick  Queiroz, Alberto Vasconcellos  Tavener, John
 Fabbri, Renaud  Lindbom, Tage  Raghavan, Venkataraman  von Dechend, Lucy
 Faivre, Antoine  Lings, Martin  Ramachandran, Mudumbaï  Woodman, Christopher
 Fitzgerald, Michael Oren  Michon, Jean-Louis  Ramdas, Swami  Yellowtail, Thomas

al-‘Alawi, Shaykh Ahmad

Shaykh Ahmad al-‘Alawi (1869-1934) was a spiritual master in the Shadhiliyyah-Darqawiyyah Tariqah, one of the great Sufi orders dedicated to meditation and prayer, whose representatives trace their lineage in an unbroken “chain” (silsilah) back to the Prophet Muhammad. Schuon traveled to Mostaghanem, Algeria in early December, 1932 to meet this famous spiritual guide. Schuon’s letters to Black Elk, the famous Lakota holy man, covered many subjects, including a description of his own spiritual quest: “I wished not only to love God, I wished also to know Him, and the Christianity of our time teaches only the love of God, never the knowledge.… And so, with regard to the knowledge of God which I was seeking—because it is a need of my nature, and God wishes to be worshipped by every man according to the nature He gave him—I found this sacred knowledge through a holy man of the Arab people, whose name was Ahmad al-‘Alawî. He was a spiritual Master and had many disciples. There I found what I was searching for: the knowledge of God, and the means to realize God.”

For more information on Shaykh Ahmad al-'Alawi, click here.

Biès, Jean

The author of more than twenty books of philosophy, comparative religion, poetry and travel, Jean Biès is former professor of Greek Literature and the University of Pau, France. A Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor and recipient of the High Prize of the Society of French Poets, since 1962 he and his wife have lived in a country home “Saint Michel la Grange” at the foot of the Pyrennees. Among his many writings he contributed to the book, Ye Shall Know the Truth .

Jean Biès conducted an interview with Frithjof Schuon, from which an article was published, "Frithjof Schuon: A Face of Eternal Wisdom" (Sophia, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1998)

For more information on Jean Biès, click here.

Black Elk, (Nicholas)

Black Elk (1863-1950) was a famous Lakota holy man whose life story was recorded in John Neihardt’s Black Elk Speaks. In 1946, when virtually no westerners were interested in Plains Indian spirituality and only a few serious scholars were studying shamanistic sacred traditions, Frithjof Schuon suggested to Joseph Epes Brown that he attempt to find Black Elk. Joseph Brown was successful in his search and the book that resulted was The Sacred Pipe: Black Elk’s Account of the Seven Sacred Rites of the Ogalala Sioux (1953).Schuon’s letters to Black Elk are preserved and cited in articles and books. Black Elk gave Catherine Schuon the Lakota name Wámbli Oyáte Win, which means "Eagle People Woman."

For more information on Black Elk, click here.

Brown, Joseph Epes

The late Joseph Epes Brown was a professor of Religious Studies at the University of Montana. A renowned author in the fields of American Indian traditions and World Religions, Brown was one of the founders of Native American Studies and was largely responsible for bringing the study of these religious traditions into American higher education. His publications include The Sacred Pipe (1953), his famous recounting of the sacred rites of the Oglala Sioux. It was Frithjof Schuon who first suggested that Brown seek out Black Elk, the famous Lakota holy man who would become Dr. Brown's primary source for that book. Schuon collected and preserved letters Brown wrote to him and other close friends while Brown was living with Black Elk. Excerpts from those letters are quoted in several books and articles.

For more information on Joseph Epes Brown, click here.

Burckhardt, Titus

Titus Burckhardt (1908-1984) was one of the leading perennialist writers of the twentieth century. His writings showed remarkable scope. Burckhardt wrote on pure metaphysics, on tradition and modern science, on sacred art, on history and political science, and on various other aspects of traditional civilizations. Burckhardt was also a translator (from Arabic into French), an editor and publisher, and a respected consultant on restoring traditional cities to their former beautiful states. Titus Burckhardt was one of Schuon’s closest personal friends, with their friendship beginning in their boyhood. Some of Burckhardt's observations about Schuon’s life and work are quoted in several articles and books

For more information on Titus Burckhardt, click here.

Casey, Deborah

Mrs. Casey has been with World Wisdom since 1981, and in her capacity as editor she had the opportunity to meet frequently with Frithjof Schuon for the publication of many of his books in English translation. Her current responsibilities involve working with other translators and editors on the translation and cataloging of Schuon's correspondence and unpublished papers for the future use of interested readers and scholars.

Mrs. Casey is the editor of Light on the Ancient Worlds, published by World Wisdom. Light on the Ancient Worlds is the first in a new series of Frithjof Schuon's classical works which have been extensively revised and updated.

Casey, Jennifer

Jennifer Casey is an independent film maker and director who has traveled extensively throughout the Plain Indians reservations. A former teacher, Mrs. Casey has met with numerous tribal leaders and Sun Dance chiefs. She lives with her husband and two children in Bloomington, IN.

She is the director of the World Wisdom documentaries Native Spirit and The Sun Dance Way. Jennifer Casey is currently working on a film documentary of the life and work of Frithjof Schuon.

For more information on Jennifer Casey, click here.

Coomaraswamy, Rama P.

Dr. Rama P. Coomaraswamy (1929-2006), son of the renowned perennialist writer Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, was in his own right an important writer on traditionalist topics, especially regarding Christianity and the influx of modernistic ideas and practices in this ancient apostolic tradition.

Dr. Coomaraswamy wrote what to our knowledge is the most detailed study of the modern changes to the Catholic rites and doctrines. This unrelenting analysis of the errors of modern insertions into Catholic tradition was originally published in 1972 but recently updated in a new edition in The Destruction of the Christian Tradition: Updated and Revised. He also collaborated with World Wisdom as the editor of The Essential Ananda K. Coomaraswamy.

For more information on Dr. Rama P. Coomaraswamy, click here.

Coomaraswamy, Ananda K.

Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy was a multi-talented researcher, scientist, linguist, expert on culture and art, philosopher, museum curator, and author. He was the first well-known author of the modern era to expound the importance of traditional arts, culture, and thought as more than simply relics of a bygone past. Dr. Coomaraswamy is often credited with reintroducing the concept of the "Perennial Philosophy" to a West dazed by the endless multiplicity of the modern world. A. K. Coomaraswamy is widely considered one of the three most important writers in the Perennialist School. References to his life and work, including excerpts from his writings, are cited in many articles and books presented on this site.

For more information on Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy, click here.

Critchlow, Keith
Dr. Keith Critchlow is the cofounder of the journal Temenos, as well as the author of numerous books on sacred geometry, including Order in Space and Time Stands Still. He is Professor Emeritus at The Prince’s School of Traditional Arts in London, and a former professor of Islamic Art at the Royal College of Art. Prof. Critchlow, a leading expert in sacred architecture, also founded Kairos, a society that investigates, studies, and promotes traditional values of art and science.

Cutsinger, James

James S. Cutsinger is an author, editor, and teacher whose writings focus primarily on Perennialism and the theology and spirituality of the Christian East. He is professor of Theology and Religious Thought at the University of South Carolina. Dr. Cutsinger is one of the foremost scholars of the English-speaking world on the writings and thought of Frithjof Schuon. His book Advice to the Serious Seeker: Meditations on the Teaching of Frithjof Schuon (SUNY Press, 1997) is an important contribution to studies on Schuon's work. Prof. Cutsinger has also edited a series of new editions of books by Frithjof Schuon (click here to see the list of books) that feature extensive editor's notes to help readers unfamiliar with terminology and references used by Schuon in those books.

For more information on James S. Cutsinger, click here.

editors at frithjof-schuon.com, (various)
The web site frithjof-schuon.com has been active since the year 2000. It makes available biographical and bibliographical information on Frithjof Schuon, as well as theme-specific excerpts of his writings tied together to show Schuon's thinking on a wide range of topics. Several good essays on Schuon's work are also to be found on the site. There are also images of his paintings and selections from his poetry. And, all of this is presented in numerous languages. In short, it is a remarkable project dedicated to the Sophia Perennnis and specifically to the philosophical and artistic contributions of Frithjof Schuon.

Fabbri, Renaud

Renaud Fabbri is the director of the Perennialist website religioperennis.org. He received an M.A. in Philosophy from La Sorbonne IV (Paris, France) and an M.A. in Comparative Religion from Miami University (Ohio, USA). Born in France, he is currently living in the US. His interests include traditional metaphysics, Hinduism, Sufism, and the Perennialist school

Renaud Fabbri contributed the essay "The Milk of the Virgin: the Prophet, the Saint and the Sage" to Sacred Web 20, the special 10th anniversary issue of the journal Sacred Web, which was dedicated to Frithjof Schuon on the occasion of his birth centenary.

For more information on Renaud Fabbri, click here.

Faivre, Antoine

Antoine Faivre is Professor Emeritus of Religious Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études and Chair of the History of Esoteric Currents in Modern and Contemporary Europe (Sorbonne). He is an important European writer on traditional esoterism. Professor Faivre’s books in English include Access to Western Esotericism, The Golden Fleece and Alchemy, The Eternal Hermes,and Theosophy, Imagination, Tradition; he is editor (with Jacob Needleman) of Modern Esoteric Spirituality.

Prof. Faivre contributed the foreword to The Fullness of God: Frithjof Schuon on Christianity .

For more information on Antoine Faivre, click here.

Fitzgerald, Michael Oren

Michael Fitzgerald is an author, editor, and publisher of books on world religions, sacred art, tradition, culture, and philosophy who is based in Bloomington, Indiana. He has written and edited many publications on American Indian spirituality, including Yellowtail: Crow Medicine Man and Sun Dance Chief, and was adopted into Yellowtail's tribe and family. Fitzgerald has also taught university classes on religious traditions of North American Indians and lectured widely.

In 2010, Michael Fitzgerald finished a volume on which he had worked for many years: Frithjof Schuon: Messenger of the Perennial Philosophy, the most comprehensive biographical study of Schuon to date.

Michael Fitzgerald's son, Joseph, is also an editor and a contributor to this site who is also based in Bloomington, Indiana.

For more information on Michael Fitzgerald, click here.

Gall, Father

Father Gall, born Erich Schuon (1906 -1991), was Schuon’s older brother. He became a Cistercian monk in 1921 and lived for most of his life at the Abbey of Notre-Dame de Scourmont in Belgium. The two brothers shared a love of the American Indians from their early childhood. Father Gall later became the adopted son of Black Elk, the famous Lakota holy man. Joseph Brown wrote to Frithjof Schuon in 1947, “Black Elk has taken a great interest in his son, Father Gall; he talks of him often, and is having several things of buckskin made for him. He is also sending him his necklace made of sacred deer hoofs, and we are sending him a pipe and sacred tobacco.” One of Schuon’s poems provides this insight, “My late brother was a monk, / From his childhood a friend of the Red Indians. / Once a troupe of Red men came from across the sea; / He made firm friends of some of them. / He learned Lakota and, all his life, / He wrote letters in this language; / To his monastery Indians came several times — / He learned many wondrous Indian songs.”

Gervy, Jeanne-Marie
Jeanne-Marie Gervy, (1919–1999), licenciée en philosophie, fut traductrice d’ouvrages de Titus Burckhardt et Martin Lings. Elle collaborait, aussi, à la revue « Connaissance des Religions », sous le nom de plume d'Alida Martin.

Goble, Paul

Paul Goble is an award winning author and illustrator of children's books. Goble's life-long fascination with Native Americans of the plains began during his childhood when he became intrigued with their spirituality and culture. His illustrations accurately depict Native American clothing, customs and surroundings in brilliant color and detail. Goble researches ancient stories and retells them for his young audience in a manner sympathetic to Native American ways. He also maintained fruitful relationships with some prominent Traditionalists, including Marco Pallis.

To date, Mr. Goble has illustrated over 28 books, including the World Wisdom titles All Our Relatives (2005) and Tipi: Home of the Nomadic Buffalo Hunters (2007). Mr. Goble also wrote the Foreword to The Gospel of the Redman (2005). His best known work, The Girl who Loved Horses won the prestigious Caldecott Medal.

For more information on Paul Goble, click here.

Guénon, René

René Guénon (1886-1951) was a French metaphysician, writer, and editor who was largely responsible for laying the metaphysical groundwork for the Traditionalist or Perennialist school of thought in the early twentieth century. Guénon remains influential today for his writings on the intellectual and spiritual bankruptcy of the modern world, on symbolism, on spiritual esoterism and initiation, and on the universal truths that manifest themselves in various forms in the world’s religious traditions. Writers on Tradition or the Perennial Philosophy often cite excerpts from the extensive correspondence between these two collaborators: Frithjof Schuon and René Guénon.

For more information on René Guénon, click here.

Hani, Jean
Jean Hani (1917-2012, professeur émérite à l'Université d'Amiens, est l'auteur de plusieurs ouvrages de référence en matière d'ésotérisme chrétien et de symbolisme traditionnel: Le Symbolisme du temple chrétien, La Divine Liturgie, Les Métiers de Dieu, et, en 2001, Le Monde à l'envers (L'Age d'Homme).

Jagadguru of Kanchi, 68th

Sri Swaminathan (1894-1994) was taken to Kalavai in his 13th year, when he was studying at Tindivanam, to be initiated into ascetic order and ordained as the 68th Acharya of the Kanchi Kamakoti Mutt. He was given the sanyasa name Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswati.

He was affectionately called "Mahaswamigal" and "Walking God". His foremost concern was preservation of the Vedas, tradition and dharma. He advocated simplicity, shunned pomp, ostentation and extravagance. His exposition of Vedanta, sastras, and the dharmic duties attracted scholars and laymen alike, from far and wide. Schuon dedicated one of his books, Language of the Self, to HH the Jagadguru. Jean-Claude Petitpierre and M. Ramachandran discuss their respective roles as intermediaries between these spiritual leaders in film interviews on this site.

Jagadguru His Holiness Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Swamigal is the author of the World Wisdom title Introduction to Hindu Dharma (2008).

For more information on the 68th Jagadguru of Kanchi, click here.

Jenny, Johann Jakob
Johann Jakob Jenny (1907 - 1997) was one of Frithjof Schuon’s schoolmates in Basle, Switzerland and remained one of Schuon’s closest and lifelong friends. He became a medical doctor and continued to live in Basle for the remainder of his life. Dr. Jenny’s 1993 film interviews in Basle record many recollections from his childhood and youth concerning his close friend, Frithjof Schuon.

Keeble, Brian

Brian Keeble is a writer and editor who has long been devoted to the promulgation of the traditional arts. His best-known book is Art: For Whom and For What? Mr. Keeble is the founder of Golgonooza Press and a co-founder of Temenos Academy, which is sponsored by The Prince's Foundation of HRH The Prince of Wales. The Temenos Academy is a teaching organization dedicated to the same central idea that had inspired the earlier Temenos Review, a journal devoted to the arts of the imagination.

For more information on Brian Keeble, click here.

Küry, Hans

Hans Küry (1906-1987) was one of the many admirers who came to Schuon for counsel. Kury later recalled the first time he saw Schuon in Basle during the summer of 1932: “Whoever had eyes and came into contact with Frithjof Schuon, even in our youth, could not doubt, even long before he was a spiritual master, indeed before he was a Muslim, that God had intended a mission for him in this regard.… Schuon, twenty-four years old, with a bold profile and handsome black beard, strode forward like a whirlwind, with the light of rapture on his forehead.… [A]s he flew on like an eagle, it was clear like lightning to me: ‘Comfort ends here!’” (“Les jeunes gens dans la Caverne: première rencontre”, 382). Many of Schuon's letters were written to Dr. Küry.

Lafouge, Jean-Pierre

Jean-Pierre LaFouge is Associate Professor of French at Marquette University. His academic career took him to the United States where he obtained a Ph.D. in French literature, specializing in nineteenth and seventeen century French and Orientalist Literature. He is the author of several articles dealing with the relationship between art, Orientalism, philosophy and literature. Jean-Pierre LaFouge has also published a book on Eugène Fromentin and is presently assisting in the revision of French to English translations of the writings of Frithjof Schuon. He is also the editor of For God’s Greater Glory: Gems Of Jesuit Spirituality .

For more information on Dr. Jean-Pierre LaFouge, click here.

Lakhani, M. Ali

M. Ali Lakhani graduated from Cambridge University before moving to Vancouver where he has practiced as a trial lawyer for 25 years. In 1998, he founded the traditionalist journal, Sacred Web, with the aim of identifying the first principles of traditional metaphysics and promoting their application to the contingent circumstances of modernity. The bi-annual journal has included contributions by many leading traditionalists. In the words of Professor Nasr, "Along with Sophia, Sacred Web is the most important journal in the English language devoted to the study of tradition."

For more information on M. Ali Lakhani, click here.

Laude, Patrick

Patrick Laude is a writer, editor, professor, and researcher in the fields of language, literature, symbolism, and mysticism. He is a professor at Georgetown University, currently at their School of Foreign Service in Qatar. Laude's writings have been published in the US and Europe in numerous journals. Dr. Laude is one of the major scholars to study and write on the work of Frithjof Schuon. He is co-author, with Jean-Baptiste Aymard, of Frithjof Schuon: Life and Teachings (SUNY Press, 2004), and author of Pathways to an Inner Islam: Massignon, Corbin, Guénon, and Schuon (SUNY Press, 2010).

For more information on Dr. Patrick Laude, click here.

Lindbom, Tage

Tage Lindbom was born in Sweden in 1909. He was one of the intellectual architects of the Swedish Welfare State, but after World War II, he started to have serious doubts about the cause he promoted. He underwent a slow, but profound intellectual and spiritual change. In 1962 he published The Windmills of Sancho Panza a book that rejected the assumptions behind Social Democracy and related movements. Since breaking with his past, Lindbom has published many books in Sweden, most of which explore the tension between religion and modern secular ideology. Two of his books have appeared in English. The first was The Tares and the Good Grain (1983) and the second was The Myth of Democracy (1996). His article, "Lucifer" appears in World Wisdom's anthology, Every Branch in Me: Essays on the Meaning of Man .

For more information on Tage Lindbom, click here.

Lings, Martin

Martin Lings (1909-2005) was a leading member of the “Traditionalist” or “Perennialist” school and an acclaimed author, editor, translator, scholar, Arabist, and poet whose work centers on the relationship between God and man through religious doctrine, scripture, symbolism, literature, and art. He was an accomplished metaphysician and essayist who often turned to the world’s great spiritual traditions for examples, though he is best known for his writings on Islam and its esoteric tradition, Sufism. Dr. Lings was also a long-time friend and associate of Frithjof Schuon, recording some of his thoughts and memories of the latter in some of the film clips found on this site.

Dr. Lings co-edited The Underlying Religion (2007) with Clinton Minnar. This book is a survey of central perennialist ideas and authors. In addition, World Wisdom will be publishing The Essential Martin Lings (forthcoming), an anthology of his work.

For more information on Dr. Martin Lings, click here.

Michon, Jean-Louis

Jean-Louis Michon is a traditionalist French scholar who specializes in Islam in North Africa, Islamic art, and Sufism. His works include Le Soufi marrocain Ahmad Ibn 'Ajiba and L'Autobiographie (Fahrasa) du Soufi marrocain Ahmad Ibn 'Ajiba (1747-1809). He has written numerous articles appearing in several languages, and has translated the Holy Koran into French. Following service in World War II, Michon's search for spiritually gifted men led him to both René Guénon and Frithjof Schuon, and his association with the latter lasted for almost fifty years.

For more information on Dr. Jean-Louis Michon, click here.

Moore, Jr., Alvin
Alvin Moore, Jr. (1923-2005) was a traditionalist Christian author, editor, translator, and reviewer.

Murray, John
John Murray (1910-1999) was one of Frithjof Schuon’s most trusted friends. Murray was a graduate of Harvard and became close friends with Whitall Perry, a fellow Harvard student, and Joseph Brown during the early 1940s. During those years each of these three men began a correspondence with Schuon. Murray first visited Schuon in Lausanne in 1947, and remained his neighbor for the rest of his life, both in Switzerland and America. The close friendship that Schuon and his wife shared with Murray and his wife was such that they were, in effect, part of the Schuon’s extended family.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein

Seyyed Hossein Nasr (b. 1933) is University Professor of Islamic Studies at George Washington University. The author of over thirty books and three hundred articles, he is one of the world’s most respected writers and speakers on Islam, its arts and sciences, and its traditional mystical path, Sufism. Dr. Nasr has written extensively on the writings and thought of Frithjof Schuon and was the editor of the major work titled The Essential Frithjof Schuon (World Wisdom, 2005).

For more information on Prof. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, click here.

Northbourne, Lord

Lord Northbourne, the 4th Baron Northbourne, was an agriculturist, educator, translator, and writer on both agriculture and comparative religion. Northbourne translated several of Schuon's book from French into English. He was educated at Oxford and was for many years Provost of Wye College in England. His first published writings were on "organic" farming (he introduced the term), and he later began to write on Traditionalist/Perennialist themes. A number of Lord Northbourne's essays appeared in the British journal, Studies in Comparative Religion, and were later included in his books Religion in the Modern World (1963) and Looking Back on Progress (1970). Lord Northbourne's essential writings are collected in Of the Land and the Spirit.

For more information on Lord Northbourne, click here.

Oldmeadow, Harry

Harry Oldmeadow an educator, a scholar, an author, and editor who is co-ordinator of Philosophy and Religious Studies at La Trobe University in Australia> He has authored such books as the acclaimed Traditionalism: Religion in the Light of the Perennial Philosophy, Journeys East: 20th Century Western Encounters with Eastern Religious Traditions, and A Christian Pilgrim in India: The Spiritual Journey of Swami Abhishiktananda. Professor Oldmeadow is one of the most active and authoritative writers today on the Perennial Philosophy and Tradition, as well as on the major figures of this school of thought. He also has written a great deal on errors of modernism and on the encounter of East and West.

With the publication of Frithjof Schuon and the Perennial Philosophy (World Wisdom, 2010), Professor Harry Oldmeadow has firmly established himself as one of the foremost scholars on the thought of Frithjof Schuon.

For more information on Professor Harry Oldmeadow, click here.

Pallis, Marco

Marco Pallis was a widely respected author on Tibetan Buddhism and the Perennial Philosophy, but he was also a gifted musician, composer, mountaineer, and translator. He translated a number of books and other pieces by Frithjof Schuon and other prominent Traditionalists. Pallis' book The Way and the Mountain came from his experiences traveling in the Eastern Himalaya region and with Tibetan Buddhism. Pallis also wrote many pieces for the important Traditionalist journal Studies in Comparative Religion, some of which are included in his last publication, A Buddhist Spectrum .

For more information on Marco Pallis, click here.

Perry, Mark

Although of American parents, Mark Perry was born in Cairo, Egypt, in 1951 and raised in Switzerland close to Frithjof Schuon. He is the son of eminent American Perennialist author Whitall Perry. Basically self-taught, he is the author of the book, On Awakening and Remembering published by Fons Vitae in 2000. Perry is currently in the process of re-translating all of Frithjof Schuon’s books from the original French into the English language. The first new translation Form and Substance in the Religions was published by World Wisdom in July 2002. This book as a totality has not appeared in English, although the individual chapters from the book have been published in various other works by Mr. Schuon.

For more information on Mark Perry, click here.

Perry, Whitall

According to Harry Oldmeadow , Whitall Perry was "the most authoritative traditionalist of American background." World Wisdom's list of Related Readings on our web site is drawn from the acknowledgements section in Whitall Perry's A Treasury Of Traditional Wisdom (George Allen and Unwin 1971), a magisterial compendium of spiritual doctrine spanning four ages and hemispheres. He also contributed to the book, Ye Shall Know the Truth .

Perry was born near Boston in 1920. His early intellectual interests included Platonism and Vedanta and he traveled extensively in the Middle and Far East both before and after World War II with a brief interlude of study at Harvard University. He was one of several Harvard students who came under Coomaraswamy's influence in the 1940s.

For more information on Whitall Perry, click here.

Perry, Barbara

Barbara Perry's introduction to Art from the Sacred to the Profane: East and West , is a reflection of her years of association with the major Perennialist figure Frithjof Schuon, and displays her in-depth knowledge of his influences, his writings, and his own paintings. Mrs. Perry, along with her late husband Whitall Perry, was also acquainted with the great early Traditionalist thinker on arts, Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, with René Guénon, and with almost all of the other central figures from the formative years of this school of thought. Barbara Perry has helped interpret Perennialist ideas to many people all over the world for over half a century.

For more information on Barbara Perry, click here.

Petitpierre, Jean-Claude

Jean-Claude Petitpierre is a Swiss Traditionalist/Perennialist. He had long associations with Frithjof Schuon, Titus Burckhardt, Martin Lings, and other important authors of Perennialist works. Petitpierre has fulfilled a variety of functions for the United Nations, including Resident Representative of the United Nations Development Programme. He has spent many years living among, and learning from, Hindu and Muslim spiritual figures. Mr. Petitpierre was interviewed for some videoclips on the life and legacy of Martin Lings and a number of topics related to the perennial philosophy.

For more information on Jean-Claude Petitpierre, click here.

Pollack, Michael
Michael Pollack (1947 - 2001) was an entrepreneur and supporter of the arts in Bloomington, Indiana. He was associated with Frithjof Schuon for many years, and edited a book of Schuon's paintings and sketches, Images of Primordial and Mystic Beauty: Paintings by Frithjof Schuon (Abodes, 1992). Michael Pollack's "Introduction" to that collection provides special insights into Schuon's artistic methods and inspirations.

Queiroz, Alberto Vasconcellos

Alberto Vasconcellos Queiroz was born and raised in the Brazilian city of Santos, the largest seaport in Latin America. He studied psychology at the Pontifical Catholic University in São Paulo where he graduated as a professional psychologist. After graduating, he moved to the city of São José dos Campos, where he began his career working in industry. He soon turned to the public sector, initially as a psychologist in residential care units, and later as a municipal administrator. He is now an assistant to the Mayor’s Office, with special responsibility for educational projects.

Alberto Vasconcellos Queiroz is the co-editor of Remembering in a World of Forgetting: Thoughts on Tradition and Postmodernism , a collection of the writings by William Stoddart.

For more information on Alberto Vasconcellos Queiroz, click here.

Raghavan, Venkataraman
Venkataraman Raghavan (1908-1979) was a Sanskrit scholar, a musicologist, and a composer specializing in Carnatic music. He was the secretary of the Music Academy, Madras, from 1944 until his death in 1979. He wrote several books on music and on aesthetics in Sanskrit literature. Dr. Raghavan has been called “one of the foremost scholars and enlightened custodians of Indian culture in general, and Sanskrit literature in particular,” and he is held in high renown for his efforts in preserving traditional Indian culture.

Dr. V. Raghavan wrote the “Foreword” to Language of the Self, by Frithjof Schuon.

For more information on Venkataraman Raghavan, click here.

Ramachandran, Mudumbaï

Mudumbaï Ramachandran was a Hindu devotee and philanthropist who had an association of over 40 years with Frithjof Schuon and other leading Perennialists. Born into a well-known Brahmin family, he became an industrialist and traveled widely in several continents. Ramachandran was a disciple of the Order of Sri Ramakrishna and knew most of the great contemporary spiritual masters of India. He acted for many years as the liaison between Frithjof Schuon and HH the 68th Jagadguru of Kanchi , Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswati. In his later years, Mr. Ramachandran dedicated much of his energies to local charitable projects in India. Mudumbaï Ramachandran died in 2006.

For more information on Mudumbaï Ramachandran, click here.

Ramdas, Swami

Sri Swami "Papa" Ramdas was born Vittal Rao in the Kerala State of India in 1884. For relief from his outer circumstances, he began to chant "Ram," a name of God, which brought him great mental peace and joy. In 1931, after years of living on the road in faith, his devotees established Anandashram for him in Kanhangad, Kerala, where he lived with Mother Krishnabai, who also attained the universal vision of God. They worked to improve the living conditions of the local people, founding a school for the children, establishing a free medical clinic, and setting up a cooperative for weavers. Together, they did extensive tours in India, and a world tour in 1954-55, with the purpose of sharing a message of Universal Love and Service, Sri Swami Ramdas died in 1963. He is the subject of The Essential Swami Ramdas .

Swami Ramdas was one of the remarkable spiritual figures who met with, and were impressed by, Frithjof Schuon in their travels through Europe. He wrote of Schuon that he was "a very prince among saints."

For more information on Swami Ramdas, click here.

Red Cloud, James
James Red Cloud (d. 1961) was a grandson of the great Sioux chief known to history. At Pine Ridge in 1959 the old chief adopted Schuon as his brother, giving him the name “Brave Eagle” (Wambali Ohítika). Schuon later wrote a poem, Red Cloud, about his encounter with the venerable Lakota leader. “He was the grandson of Chief Red Cloud / Of the Ogallala band. We met — / The noble old man and I — and had a long talk / In Pine Ridge, beneath the shade of a tree. / He talked first about old times; then there was / Silence, until I began to speak, and said: / The world is but dream-stuff — / The dream vanishes before Reality. / The Chief adopted me into his clan, / Gave me many good words, and then he died. / Let the winds blow over the wide land — / The heart will live forever in the Great Spirit.”

Saran, Awadh Kishore
Awadh Kishore Saran (1922-2003), wrote under the name A. K. Saran. Saran was an Indian scholar, editor, and writer who was one of the most important voices in the Hindu world on traditional thought. A. K. Saran's writings often covered the expositors of traditional teachings and the perennial philosophy such as Frithjof Schuon, and particularly Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. Saran's books include Hinduism in Contemporary India, Illuminations, On the Intellectual Vocation, On the Theories of Secularism and Modernization, Traditional Vision of Man, Traditional Thought, and Sociology of Knowledge and Traditional Thought.

Schaya, Leo

Leo Schaya was a writer in the Traditionalist/Perennialist school. He was particularly known for his writings on Jewish esoterism, with his book The Universal Meaning of the Kabbalah (1958) being one of the best known and often-quoted works in that field; however, he also was at home in the area of Sufi metaphysical interpretation.

Leo Schaya's essay "Creation, the Image of God" is one of the articles collected in the anthology Seeing God Everywhere: Essays on Nature and the Sacred . Another essay, "On the Name "Allah" is included in Sufism: Love and Wisdom . An online sample of his writing, the essay "The Eliatic Function" (about the esoteric function of the prophet Elijah), which appeared in the important traditionalist journal Studies in Comparative Religion, can be read if you click here.

For more information on Leo Schaya, click here.

Schimmel, Annemarie

Annemarie Schimmel (1922-2003) was one of the leading experts on Islamic literature and mysticism (Sufism) in the world. She wrote more than 80 books and essays, and lectured at universities and conferences around the world. Professor Schimmel translated and conducted research in the major Islamic languages of Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and Turkish. Her book Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975) is considered a classic in its field.

Dr. Schimmel, one of the great authorities in Islamic Studies, wrote this about Schuon's book Understanding Islam: "Schuon's book shows the essence of Islam, compares its world view with that of Christianity and often brings examples from other religious traditions, all of which his vast erudition comprises. The style of the work reminds the reader sometimes of crystalline pure forms, and yet one often finds passages which touch the heart." She also wrote about Schuon's German spiritual poems, a piece which is often included as the foreword to his collections of poems translated into English.

For more information on Dr. Annemarie Schimmel, click here.

Schuon, Catherine

Catherine Schuon’s interest in world religions and spirituality brought her into contact with Frithjof Schuon, the famous writer, whom she married in May 1949. She accompanied her husband on all of his travels and helped him to receive visits and answer correspondence from spiritual seekers who came to seek her husband’s counsel. Her work with her husband brought her into contact with people from diverse religions and from throughout the world. Gifted in languages, she also became fluent in English and conversant in Italian, in addition to the three languages of her youth: German, French and Spanish.

She is the editor of Art from the Sacred to the Profane: East and West , a collection of Frithjof Schuon’s selected writings on art.

For more information on Catherine Schuon, click here.

Scott, Timothy

Timothy Scott founded and was Executive Editor of the journal Eye of the Heart, based in Bendigo, Australia. In addition, Dr. Scott is a regular contributor to the traditionalist journals Sacred Web and Sophia, often writing on various aspects of symbolism and Tradition.

Shah-Kazemi, Reza

Reza Shah-Kazemi is a Research Associate at the Institute of Ismaili Studies in London. Dr. Shah-Kazemi writes on a range of topics from metaphysics and doctrine to contemplation and prayer. He is the author of Paths to Transcendence: According to Shankara, Ibn Arabi, and Meister Eckhart, a look at of how three sages (a Hindu, a Muslim, and a Christian) approached the Transcendent Absolute.

For more information on Dr. Reza Shah-Kazemi, click here.

Smith, Huston

Huston Smith is one of the most prominent voices in the contemporary study of religion and spirituality. His book, The World's Religions, is used in countless classes, and Prof. Smith's other books are widely respected in the field. Much of his work over the years deals with the tenets of the Perennial Philosophy.

For more information on Dr. Huston Smith, click here.

Soares de Azevedo, Mateus

Mateus Soares de Azevedo is an author, translator, editor, and journalist from Minas Gerais, central Brazil. He is the author of a number of books and dozens of articles and essays dealing with the importance of traditional religion and spirituality in the contemporary world, some of them translated into English and Spanish. He has also translated a number of books by Guénon, Schuon, Lings, and other Perennialist figures into Portugese.

For more information on Mateus Soares de Azevedo, click here.

Stoddart, William

William Stoddart is a perennialist author, editor, and translator who has been active in advancing the understanding of the writings of Frithjof Schuon, Titus Burckhardt, and others, for many years. A compilation of his own writings, Remembering in a World of Forgetting, was edited by M. Soares de Azevedo and A. Vasconcellos Queiroz. Stoddart also edited The Essential Titus Burckhardt, and is perhaps the greatest authority on the work of this great Swiss traditionalist. Dr. Stoddart translated a number of Schuon's books into English, and was closely associated with the Perennialist sage for many decades.

For more information on William Stoddart, click here.

William Stoddart, né à Carstairs (Écosse), a passé presque toute sa vie professionnelle à Londres et vit maintenant à Windsor (Canada). Il a étudié les langues modernes et la médecine aux universités de Glasgow, Édimbourg et Dublin. Dr Stoddart est l'auteur de Le Soufisme, Doctrine métaphysique et Voie mystique dans l'Islam (Éditions des Trois Continents, Lausanne, 1979), « Une visite au Jagadguru » dans Connaissance des Religions (septembre 1991), « Titus Burckhardt: sa vie et son oeuvre» dans Miroir de l'Intellect (L'Age d'Homme, Lausanne, 1992), Invincible Sagesse (Les Sept Flèches 2011), L'Islam: et ce qu'il signifie dans le monde d'aujourd'hui (CreateSpace 2013), et Chrétiens et musulmans, Que disent-ils les uns des autres ? (Les Sept Flèches 2013). Il a également publié en anglais plus de dix livres, ainsi que nombreux articles.

Sugobono, Nahuel
Nahuel Sugobono is an author and journalist who specializes in popular science and comparative religion. He studied Anthropology at the University of Buenos Aires, the city where he lives. As a journalist, his writings have appeared for almost 20 year in major Argentinean publications. As a writer, he has published more than 15 books of Indian myths and legends from Argentina and other parts of the American continent.

Tavener, John
Sir John Tavener (1944-2013) was a world renowned composer, conductor and musical celebrity. Inspired by the writings of Frithjof Schuon, Sir John incorporated Hindu, Sufi, Jewish and North American Indian ideas into his compositions. His article, “Towards the Musica Prennis,” is found in the World Wisdom anthology Every Man An Artist .

For more information on Sir John Tavener, click here.

von Dechend, Lucy

Lucy von Dechend (1899-1991) was one of Schuon’s earliest and lifelong friends. In 1924 it was Von Dechend who pointed him toward a book by the French metaphysician René Guénon (1886-1951), which presented a devastating critique of various modern ideologies. The parents of Lucy von Dechend were close friends of the Schuon family. Catherine Schuon relates: “Lucy came to know Frithjof when he was four years old and she was twelve. From the beginning Lucy noticed that Frithjof was a very special child and became very fond of him. When growing up they never lost contact with each other.… She was his first female disciple and remained a faithful friend until the end of her life. She was also the recipient of many important letters which she copied and distributed on Frithjof’s behest to their common friends and later did the same with his articles.”

Woodman, Christopher
Christopher Woodman is an essayist and poet who contributed a book review on Frithjof Schuon’s In the Tracks of Buddhism to the Summer, 1968 edition of Studies in Comparative Religion. Woodman had been introduced to the writings of Schuon through a friend, Marco Pallis. At the time that he wrote the piece, he was a Research Fellow at Christ’s College, Cambridge in Renaissance Studies, where he was initially supervised by C.S. Lewis and then by G.G. Hough. Mr. Woodman was then also Chairman of the Cambridge Buddhist Society, and with Marco Pallis’s encouragement he helped the young Lama, Chogyam Trungpa Rimpoche, to become the first president of the Society. Mr. Woodman subsequently became Trungpa Rimpoche’s personal secretary, and went on to work with him and Akong Rimpoche at the Samye Ling Tibetan Center in Eskfdalemuir, Scotland. Today Christopher Woodman lives in Chiang Mai, in northern Thailand, where he assists his Thai wife, a Traditional Medicine Doctor, at the Baan Hom Samunphrai School where she teaches Thai Traditional Medicine and Herbal Pharmacology.

Yellowtail, Thomas

Medicine Man and Sundance Chief Thomas Yellowtail (1903-1993) was a pivotal figure in Crow tribal life and one of the most admired American Indian spiritual leaders of the last century. As a youth he lived in the presence of old warriors, hunters, and medicine men who knew the freedom and sacred ways of pre-reservation life. As the principal figure in the Crow-Shoshone Sun Dance religion during the last half of the 20th century, he was important in perpetuating the spiritual traditions of his Crow tribe. Yellowtail's advice on following the ancient ways in the modern world has inspired many Indians, and many non-Indians as well.

Thomas Yellowtail and Frithjof Schuon first met in Europe, while Yellowtail was traveling there with other American Indians teaching Europeans about their culture and tradtions. These two men visited each other often over the almost fifty years of their friendship, each learning much from the other's words and comportment. Thomas Yellowtail contributed the "Introduction" to Schuon's book The Feathered Sun: Plains Indians in Art and Philosophy.

For more information on Thomas Yellowtail, click here.

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